Sustainable Transportation in Pakistan Converting Petrol Motorcycles into Hybrid Bikes

Zain Hasnain, Mechanical Engineer |

The worldwide push for eco-friendly and sustainable transportation has led to increasing interest in
converting traditional petrol bikes into hybrid motorcycles. This research article provides an in-depth
exploration of the mechanical components that can be replaced or modified in both 70 CC and 120 CC
motorcycles in Pakistan to enable the conversion into efficient and environmentally conscious hybrid bikes.

Common Mechanical Components for Conversion:

a. Fuel System: Petrol motorcycles rely on fuel systems, including fuel tanks, carburetors, and fuel lines.
These components need to be replaced or modified to accommodate the hybrid system.
b. Exhaust System: The exhaust system of a conventional petrol motorcycle must be adapted to handle
the reduced emissions of a hybrid system.
c. Clutch and Transmission: The clutch and transmission system may require modification to allow the
hybrid system to interact with the internal combustion engine (ICE). This adaptation is necessary for
smooth power delivery between the two propulsion systems.
d. Frame and Chassis: The frame and chassis of the motorcycle need to be structurally evaluated for
compatibility with the added weight and dimensions of the hybrid components.

70 CC Motorcycle Specifics:

a. Engine Size and Type: In 70 CC motorcycles, the engine is relatively small. Hybrid conversion may necessitate engine replacement or substantial modification to accommodate the hybrid components
b. Suspension and Handling: The suspension and handling characteristics should be evaluated for possible upgrades to handle the additional weight of hybrid components and batteries.

120 CC Motorcycle Specifics:

a. Engine Size and Power: In 120 CC motorcycles, the engine is more powerful. This may require
adaptations to the electric motor and battery system to complement the ICE adequately.
b. Braking System: Enhanced braking systems, possibly with regenerative capabilities, may be considered
for improved energy efficiency and safety.
c. Cooling System: The cooling system should be evaluated for efficient heat management, especially with the added components of the hybrid system.

Challenges and Considerations:

a. Weight Distribution: The added weight of the electric components and batteries should be carefully
managed to ensure proper weight distribution and handling characteristics.
b. Expertise and Technical Skills: Skilled mechanics with knowledge of both internal combustion engines
and electric systems are crucial for successful hybrid conversions.
c. Cost Considerations: The conversion process can be expensive, primarily due to the price of hybrid components and labor. Cost analysis and budgeting are essential.

Application in Pakistan
Here are some specific applications for hybrid motorcycles in Pakistan:

  1. Urban Commuting: Hybrid motorcycles can serve as an eco-friendly and cost-effective mode of
    transportation for daily urban commuting in congested cities like Karachi, Lahore, and Islamabad. With their extended range and reduced emissions, they can help alleviate traffic congestion and air pollution.
  2. Improved Fuel Efficiency: Given the rising fuel costs in Pakistan, hybrid motorcycles can help individuals save money on fuel expenses while maintaining the convenience and mobility of a motorbike.
  3. Eco-Tourism: In regions with rich natural landscapes and tourist attractions, such as the Northern Areas and Azad Kashmir, hybrid motorcycles can provide a sustainable and environmentally responsible means for tourists to explore the area without contributing to air pollution and noise disturbances.
  4. Delivery Services: Hybrid motorcycles can be a practical choice for delivery services, such as food
    delivery and courier companies, aiming to reduce operating costs and the carbon footprint associated with their services.
  5. Environmental Conservation: Pakistan is grappling with environmental challenges, including air
    pollution and climate change. Hybrid motorcycles can contribute to environmental conservation efforts by reducing the emissions of greenhouse gases and air pollutants.
  6. Energy Security: Reducing reliance on imported petroleum products can enhance Pakistan’s energy
    security. Hybrid motorcycles, with their reduced fuel consumption, can help decrease the country’s dependency on fossil fuel imports.
  7. Government Initiatives: The Pakistani government can promote the adoption of hybrid motorcycles as part of its sustainability and green transportation initiatives. Offering incentives or subsidies for the conversion of petrol bikes into hybrid vehicles could encourage wider adoption.
  8. Reduction of Noise Pollution: In densely populated urban areas, the reduced noise generated by
    electric propulsion can help mitigate noise pollution, making hybrid motorcycles suitable for both riders and residents.
  9. Educational Awareness: Promoting hybrid motorcycles can also serve as an educational tool to raise
    awareness about sustainable transportation and the benefits of electric and hybrid technologies.


It’s important to note that while hybrid motorcycles have great potential in Pakistan as the petrol prices in
past 2 years increased from 110 PKR to 330 PKR, there are also challenges such as initial conversion costs,
infrastructure for charging and maintenance, and regulatory considerations that need to be addressed.
Collaborative efforts involving government support, private industry, and consumer awareness can help
harness the full potential of hybrid motorcycles in Pakistan’s transportation landscape.