Saving is Earning-Turn waste to Cash Apply CoGen Systems (Waste to Energy)

Saving is Earning-Turn waste to Cash
Apply CoGen Systems (Waste to Energy)

CoGen Systems
8% Plant Efficiency
45% Fuel
Is Earning
38% Efficiecny &
62% Fuel Losses without
CoGen Systems
80% Efficiecny & 20% Fuel Losses wit
CoGen Systems
80% Thermal Efficiency by CoGen Systems Designed by CoGen Consult

CoGeneration Technology Basics

All Engines & Electric Power Generators sets, produce a certain degree of heat during Electricity Generation which can be utilized in a method called cogeneration.
“Cogeneration it to kills 4 Birds with One Stone”,
Co-Generations Systems or CHP (Combined Heat & Power ) or Waste Heat Recovery Systems,
can be used to both heat and cool large buildings or use potential energy to power any number of industrial applications. On average most Engines lose about 50% of their thermal energy.
With Co-Generation, power plants can potentially reach up to 80% efficiency overall.
We shall discuss the Engineering aspects behind Co-Generation(CHP) and the practical applications currently in use throughout the world.

CoGeneration Technology Basics

Cogeneration or CHP (combined heat and power) can be defined as procurement of three forms of energy from one fuel source.
For example, a Generator Electrical power 38% as the primary energy source and 62% waste heat as the secondary energy source.
Often times the term “CoGeneration” is used incorrectly.
Combined Generations (CoGen) does not refer to the operation of two generating sources working in parallel; such as two generators linked together as one unit source of power.
The energy captured from a true cogeneration system would normally be released into the natural environment.
CoGen is one of the leading technological advancements for achieving fuel efficiency.
Under the right circumstances power generation systems can achieve 50%-200% gains in efficiency or more over their current setup.
Increasing concern about carbon dioxide emissions makes reduced use of fossil fuels urgent for the future. Instead of a complete change in power production technology (solar, wind, hydroelectric) companies are Gaining Efficiency much more cheaply through CoGen Systems .
The primary power source can be any form of prime mover driven power such as,
Electrical generation systems,
Air Blowers, De-Salinization units, Pumps, Air compressors Centrifugal (absorption) chillers.
The thermodynamic heat recovered from the prime mover is usually in the form of steam or hot water.
The prime mover process transforms into a CoGen Systems , when the heat ejected from the prime mover, which is normally wasted, is recovered and is used in a heat consuming device.
The primary difference between a gas turbine engine and a reciprocating engine is the way the heat is ejected.
It is important to note that CoGen CoGen Systems should only be considered if there is an ongoing need for using waste heat.
It is not an economical solution if waste heat is only used for a few months out of the year.
A CoGen system that uses waste heat in the winter to heat a space would also need to use that waste heat to during other seasons.
For Example from One Gas Gen of 1000 KWe running at 85% Average Load (850 KWe+/- 50 KWe) can produce 250 Ref Ton/Hr Air Conditioning effect thru Liquid Absorption Chiller , saving 300 KWe additional Elect Power may require for the same size of Elect Chillers Operation Saving 45% gas Bill, and minimum maintenance & 25 Yrs Chiller life.
Smaller Cogen Plants 500-3000 KWe Gas Gen are more feasible & Practical in Pakistan.
Cogen Systems are perfect for hospitals, hotels, industrial plants and university campuses running 24/Day & Hrs, 8000 Hrs/Year..
If there is a disparity between electricity and heat use one or the other can be sold in a power purchase agreement. For example, CoGen Consult have arrange life time agreement between Indus Dyeing Korangi & Artistic Milliner # 3 to purchase the CoGen Produced Steam 5 Ton/Hr at 50% rate. Benefitting both Textile mills saving 4.5 Millios Rs./month to each.
if there happens to be a greater demand for heat than electrical power it can be sold directly to a utility company.
In North Pakistan where winter season is 3-4 Months , hot water may be pumps to buyer hotels & houses for warming heating at cost with flow meters distributions 45-65C hot water.

Types of Cogeneration Systems

The most common type of waste heat recovery systems are steam and hot water.
Engine’s jacket Waste heat Recovery Systems as Hot water
Most engines have a maximum jacket water outlet temperature of Caterpillar 99-91 C, Waukesha 105-80 C, Jenbacher 90-70C, MTU 90-80C, Cummins UK (90-80C), Engines must be specifically configured to operate at the higher temperature.
However, for most applications 90 +/- 5 C is hot enough to meet all needs.

Engine Exhaust Smoke/Flue gases waste heat recovery Systems as 10 bar/175C Steam

1000 Kg/Hr Saturtaed 150 Psi /175 C Steam can be generated from a 1000 KWe Gas Elect Genset using 90-110 C feed water, Gas Gen must be running at least 75-85% load for 6000 Hrs/Yrs.
Similarly 3500 Kg/Hr Saturated Steam 10 bar/175 C may be Generated from a 1000 Kwe Gas Turbine Genset and achieve 80-85% Fuel Efficiecny power Plant
Most exhaust systems are also designed with the optional (Auxiliary Burner /supplementary heating sources) fired steam boiler which is utilized by an exhaust gas bypass valve.
For a gas turbine engine approximately 29% of the heat input is used for power and 71% is lost due to exhaust. With a cogeneration system 40%-60% of the exhaust is usually recoverable.

Common Cogeneration Plants in Pakistan
Piston Engine Facilities:
By far the most common method of cogeneration. Heat from smaller piston engines, usually Gas , Diesel, HFO Genset,The Heat is captured from the Jacket heat Radiator & Exhaust Flue Gases. These systems are popular because they are easy to maintain, cost less and are easily adaptable to a variety of size requirements.

Gas Engine Facilities: These plants utilize a gas engine which is generally easier to maintain than a smaller gas turbine (1 to 5 MW). The most common fuel used is natural gas. These plants typically Designed Locally in Pakistan and installed successfully since 1980. Only CoGen Consult Engr. Khalid saeed have designed & installed 850 CoGen Projects all over Pakistan.
Heavy Fuel Oil Facilities:
HFO ( Heavy Fuel) are used in Pakistan for Furnace HFO oil preheating in the storage Tanks, settling & days Tanks Steam Trace Pipe Lines, Centrifuges ,viscosity Controllers, till Engine burning.HFO Number 5 and Number 6, which require preheating of 50-70-90 C are the most common variants used in Cogen. The benefit of HFO is that is that it is cheaply purchased but the downside is the emissions it produces are considerable.
Who will Design the Cogen Systems:
Vast majority of systems are propriety designs built for custom projects.
As always, it is best to consult a professional Power Plant & Cogen Systems design Engg Consultant (like CoGen Consult Engr. Khalid saeed) before embarking on a CoGen Project.
Professionals will be able to calculate the proper heat recovery for the prime mover to achieve the desired result.

Contact for further understanding CoGen Systems
Engr. Khalid saeed
Mob: 0300-8287009, 0302-8287009, 0301 8286009