Engr. Dr. Muhammad Nawaz Iqbal
A product line’s needs can be met by a microprocessor control programme, providing performance improvements with little need for product change. At very low production costs, unique features can be added to the various versions of a product line. Control techniques that are impossible to achieve using electromechanical controls or custom electronic controls can be provided by microprocessor control of a system. An internal combustion engine, for instance, can run on a variety of fuel grades by having its ignition timing adjusted based on factors including engine speed, load, temperature, and any noticed inclination for banging. Device drivers are created for the various hardware devices and must be included in embedded software at the time of production. These hardware-specific drivers and other routines are part of the BSP (Board support package), a layer of software that is integrated with a particular operating system (often a real-time operating system, or RTOS) to enable operation in a certain hardware environment (a computer or CPU card).
The electronics in automobiles, phones, modems, robotics, appliances, toys, security systems, pacemakers, televisions and set-top boxes, and digital watches, for instance, all have embedded software built into them. With the appropriate amount of processing complexity calculated using a Probably Approximately Correct Computation framework, this software can be quite basic, such as lighting controls operating on an 8-bit microcontroller with a few kilobytes of memory. Small computers had previously been constructed utilizing racks of circuit boards containing numerous small- and medium-scale integrated circuits, mainly of the TTL type. This was merged by microprocessors into one or more big ICs.
Since then, the capacity of microprocessors has continued to rise, making older types of computers nearly entirely obsolete. Today, one or more microprocessors are found in every type of computer, from the smallest embedded systems and handheld devices to the largest mainframes and supercomputers. Because word size is a gauge of complexity, microprocessors can be chosen for various purposes based on this parameter. Longer word sizes result in physically larger integrated circuit dies with higher standby and running power consumption, but they also allow a processor to perform more computations each clock cycle. Embedded systems frequently use microcontrollers with 4-, 8-, or 12-bit CPUs.
The microprocessor is a multipurpose clock-driven, register-based, digital integrated circuit that accepts binary data as input, processes it in accordance with stored instructions in its memory, and outputs the results. Combinational and sequential digital logic are both present in microprocessors, which use the binary number system to represent numbers and symbols. Microcontrollers, which are microprocessors with built-in memory and peripheral interfaces, are the foundation of many contemporary embedded systems, but regular microprocessors, which use external chips for memory and peripheral interface circuits, are also widely used, especially in more complex systems.
More and more transportation systems, including aircraft and automobiles, use embedded technologies. Modern aircraft feature sophisticated avionics like GPS receivers and inertial guidance systems, which also have high safety standards. For trajectory adjustment, astrionics systems are used by spacecraft. Electronic motor controllers are used with a variety of electric motors, including brushless DC motors, induction motors, and DC motors. Embedded systems are being used more and more in cars, electric cars, and hybrid cars to improve economy and cut pollution.